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Ionic Equilibrium Formulas

Ionic Equilibrium is a vital concept that you need to look into during your studies. To help you we have come up with the Ionic Equilibrium Formulas that are crucial to revise the concept completely. You will get Ionic Equilibrium Formula Sheet here covering numerous important concepts like Electrolytes, Common Ion Effect, Acids, and Bases, Ostwald Dilution Law, etc. Start learning the Ionic Equilibrium Formulae and solve related equations in no time.

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Cheat Sheets for Ionic Equilibrium

Master the Concept of Ionic Equilibrium by practicing the Formulas related on a daily basis. The below outlined Ionic Equilibrium Formulas covers both basic and advanced concepts and helps you solve equations quickly and efficiently. Grab the opportunity and apply them while solving your equations and arrive at the solution easily.

1. (a) Strong Acid:– HClO4, H2SO4, HCl, HNO3

(b) Weak Acid:

(c) Strong Base:
NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, Ba (OH)2

(d) Weak Base:
C6H5NH2, Mg (OH)2, NH4OH, NH3, LiOH, Cu(OH)2, Zn (OH)2, Be (OH)2, Cd (OH)2.

2. (a) Strong Electrolytes:
NaCl, KCl, KNO3, BaSO4, NaOH, HCl, H2SO4, BaCl2, HBr, HI, HClO4.

(b) Weak Electrolytes:

(c) Non-Electrolytes:
Urea, sugar, CCl4, C6H6

3. Relation between ionisation constant (Kj) & degree of ionisation (α):
Ki = \(\frac{\alpha^{2}}{(1-\alpha) V}=\frac{\alpha^{2} C}{(1-\alpha)}\)
This equation is called as Ostwald’s dilution formula or law – It is applicable to weak electrolytes for which α << 1 then
α = \(\sqrt{\mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{i}} \mathrm{V}}=\sqrt{\frac{\mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{i}}}{\mathrm{C}}}\)
or V ↑ C ↓ α ↑

4. Summary of Various Salt’s Hydrolysis:
Ionic Equilibrium formulas img 1

5. (a) Examples of salt of weak acid & strong base [SBWA] :
Na2CO3, BaCO3, CH3COONa, CH3CH2COONa, KCN, HCOONa, NaCN, Na2S, CH3COOK, HCOOK, K2S, K2CO3, (CH3COO)2 Ba, (HCOCO)2, Ba, Ba (CN)2, BaS.

(b) Examples of salt of weak base & Strong acid [WBSA]:
NH4Cl, NH4NO3, NH4ClO4, (NH4)2 SO4, ZnCl2, Zn(ClO4)2, Zn(NO3)2, ZnSO4, FeCl3, AlCl3, C6H5NH2HCl

(c) Examples of salt of weak base & weak acid [WBWA]:
CH3COONH4, HCOONH4, NH4CN, (NH4)2CO3, Zn3(PO4)2, (NH4)3 PO4, C6H5NH3+, CH3COO

(d) Examples of salt of Strong Acid & Strong Base [SASB] :
NaCl, NaNO3, NaClO4, Na2SO4, KCl, KClO4, KNO3, K2SO4, Ba(ClO4)2, Ba(NO3)2, BaSO4, K2SO3

6. Ionisation constant (Ki) & Ionic product of water (Kw):

  • Molar concentration of water is 55.4 Moles/litre
  • Water is a very weak electrolyte
  • At 25°C 2H2O ⇌ H3O+ + OH or H2O ⇌ H+ + OH
  • Kw = [H3 O+] [OH]
    or Kw = [H+] [OH]
    = 10-14 Moles/litre (10-14 gram ions/litre)
  • In pure water at 25° C [H+] = [OH] = 10-7 gram ions/litre
  • pKw = 14

7. (a) If solubility product = ionic product then the solution issaturated.
(b) If solubility product > ionic product then the solution is unsaturated and more of the ubstance can be dissolved in it.
(c) If ionic product > solubility prouduct then the solution is super saturated (principle of precipitation).

Summary – Qualitative Analysis
(In solution that compound will precipitate first whose Ksp ↓)
Ionic Equilibrium formulas img 2

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