Chemistry Formulas | List of Chemistry Formulas

Chemistry might seem intimidating at first but is extremely useful. So how about learning the Chemistry Concepts all at one place without much effort. Sounds great right! Look no further and go ahead and we have listed the Chemistry Formulae Collection to ace up your preparation. We are here to assist you in this and we have come up with the Important Chemistry Formulas that help you solve your problems fast and effortlessly.

List of Chemistry Formulae

The Chemistry Formulas listed here cover various topics within the syllabus and you can cover the entire syllabus in a smart way. You can rely on the Formula Sheet over here as there are prepared by subject expertise after extensive research. Various concepts like Atomic Structure, Chemical Equilibrium, Chemical Kinetics, Periodic Table, Polymers Formulas are given here. You can use these Chemistry Cheat Sheet & Tables to be familiar with various topics easily.

Peroidic Table of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements

List of elements by atomic number

Here is a list of the elements sorted by atomic number.

element symbol atomic number atomic weight
hydrogen H 1 [1.00784, 1.00811]
helium He 2 4.002602
lithium Li 3 [6.938, 6.997]
beryllium Be 4 9.0121831
boron B 5 [10.806, 10.821]
carbon C 6 [12.0096, 12.0116]
nitrogen N 7 [14.00643, 14.00728]
oxygen O 8 [15.99903, 15.99977]
fluorine F 9 18.998403163
neon Ne 10 20.1797
sodium Na 11 22.98976928
magnesium Mg 12 [24.304, 24.307]
aluminum (aluminium) Al 13 26.9815385
silicon Si 14 [28.084, 28.086]
phosphorus P 15 30.973761998
sulfur (sulphur) S 16 [32.059, 32.076]
chlorine Cl 17 [35.446, 35.457]
argon Ar 18 39.948
potassium K 19 39.0983
calcium Ca 20 40.078
scandium Sc 21 44.955908
titanium Ti 22 47.867
vanadium V 23 50.9415
chromium Cr 24 51.9961
manganese Mn 25 54.938044
iron Fe 26 55.845
cobalt Co 27 58.933194
nickel Ni 28 58.6934
copper Cu 29 63.546
zinc Zn 30 65.38
gallium Ga 31 69.723
germanium Ge 32 72.630
arsenic As 33 74.921595
selenium Se 34 78.971
bromine Br 35 [79.901, 79.907]
krypton Kr 36 83.798
rubidium Rb 37 85.4678
strontium Sr 38 87.62
yttrium Y 39 88.90594
zirconium Zr 40 91.224
niobium Nb 41 92.90637
molybdenum Mo 42 95.95
technetium Tc 43 (97)
ruthenium Ru 44 101.07
rhodium Rh 45 102.90550
palladium Pd 46 106.42
silver Ag 47 107.8682
cadmium Cd 48 112.414
indium In 49 114.818
tin Sn 50 118.710
antimony Sb 51 121.760
tellurium Te 52 127.60
iodine I 53 126.90447
xenon Xe 54 131.293
cesium (caesium) Cs 55 132.90545196
barium Ba 56 137.327
lanthanum La 57 138.90547
cerium Ce 58 140.116
praseodymium Pr 59 140.90766
neodymium Nd 60 144.242
promethium Pm 61 (145)
samarium Sm 62 150.36
europium Eu 63 151.964
gadolinium Gd 64 157.25
terbium Tb 65 158.92535
dysprosium Dy 66 162.500
holmium Ho 67 164.93033
erbium Er 68 167.259
thulium Tm 69 168.93422
ytterbium Yb 70 173.045
lutetium Lu 71 174.9668
hafnium Hf 72 178.49
tantalum Ta 73 180.94788
tungsten (wolfram) W 74 183.84
rhenium Re 75 186.207
osmium Os 76 190.23
iridium Ir 77 192.217
platinum Pt 78 195.084
gold Au 79 196.966569
mercury Hg 80 200.592
thallium Tl 81 [204.382, 204.385]
lead Pb 82 207.2
bismuth Bi 83 208.98040
polonium Po 84 (209)
astatine At 85 (210)
radon Rn 86 (222)
francium Fr 87 (223)
radium Ra 88 (226)
actinium Ac 89 (227)
thorium Th 90 232.0377
protactinium Pa 91 231.03588
uranium U 92 238.02891
neptunium Np 93 (237)
plutonium Pu 94 (244)
americium Am 95 (243)
curium Cm 96 (247)
berkelium Bk 97 (247)
californium Cf 98 (251)
einsteinium Es 99 (252)
fermium Fm 100 (257)
mendelevium Md 101 (258)
nobelium No 102 (259)
lawrencium Lr 103 (262)
rutherfordium Rf 104 (263)
dubnium Db 105 (268)
seaborgium Sg 106 (271)
bohrium Bh 107 (270)
hassium Hs 108 (270)
meitnerium Mt 109 (278)
darmstadtium Ds 110 (281)
roentgenium Rg 111 (281)
copernicium Cn 112 (285)
ununtrium Uut 113 (286)
flerovium Fl 114 (289)
ununpentium Uup 115 (289)
livermorium Lv 116 (293)
ununseptium Uus 117 (294)
ununoctium Uuo 118 (294)

Elements with an atomic weight given in square brackets have an atomic weight that is given as a range. Elements with an atomic weight in parentheses list the weight of the isotope with the longest half-life.

List of Chemical Formulas and their Common Names with Chemical Compounds

The below table covers the Chemical compounds and their formulas with their common names. These below-listed compounds and their formulas are regularly asked in the SSC exam or government exams. You can also download the free pdf given in this article to memorise the below-given list.

Compound name - Molecular Formula Molecular weight
1 Acetic acid - CH3COOH 60.052 g/mol
2 Hydrochloric acid - HCl 36.458 g/mol
3 Sulfuric acid - H2SO4 ‎98.072 g/mol
4 Acetate - CH3COO 59.044 g/mol
5 Ammonia - NH3 17.031 g/mol
6 Nitric acid - HNO3 63.012 g/mol
7 Phosphoric acid - H3PO4 97.994 g/mol
8 Sodium phosphate - Na3PO4 119.976 g/mol
9 Calcium carbonate - CaCO3 100.086 g/mol
10 Ammonium sulfate - (NH4)2SO4 132.134 g/mol
11 Carbonic acid - H2CO3 62.024 g/mol
12 Sodium bicarbonate - NaHCO3 84.0066 g/mol
13 Sodium hydroxide - NaOH 39.997 g/mol
14 Calcium hydroxide - Ca(OH)2 74.092 g/mol
15 Ethanol - C2H5OH 46.069 g/mol
16 Hydrobromic acid - HBr 80.912 g/mol
17 Sulfuric acid - H2SO4 98.072 g/mol
18 Nitrous acid - HNO2 ‎47.013 g/mol
19 Potassium hydroxide - KOH 56.11 g/mol
20 Silver nitrate - AgNO3 169.872 g/mol
21 Sodium carbonate - Na2CO3 105.988 g/mol
22 Sodium chloride - NaCl 58.44 g/mol
23 Cellulose - (C6H10O5)n 162.1406 g/mol
24 Magnesium hydroxide - Mg(OH)2 58.319 g/mol
25 Methane - CH4 16.043 g/mol
26 Nitrogen dioxide - NO2 30.006 g/mol
27 Potassium hydroxide - KOH 56.105 g/mol
28 Sodium nitrate - NaNO3 84.994 g/mol
29 Sulfurous acid - H2SO3 82.073 g/mol
30 Aluminium sulfate - Al2(SO4)3 342.15 g/mol
31 Aluminum oxide - Al2O3 101.96 g/mol
32 Ammonia - NH3 17.031 g/mol
33 Ammonium nitrate - NH4NO3 80.043 g/mol
34 Ammonium phosphate - (NH4)3PO4 132.056 g/mol
35 Barium hydroxide - Ba(OH)2 171.341 g/mol
36 Carbon tetrachloride - CCl4 153.811 g/mol
37 Citric acid - C6H8O7 192.123 g/mol
38 Hydrocyanic acid - HCN ‎27.026 g/mol
39 Salicylic Acid - C7H6O3 138.121 g/mol
40 Hydroiodic acid - HI 127.91 g/mol
41 Hypochlorous acid - HClO 52.457 g/mol
42 Iron iii oxide - Fe2O3 159.687 g/mol
43 Magnesium phosphate - Mg3(PO4)2 262.855 g/mol
44 Sodium acetate - C2H3NaO2 82.0343 g/mol
45 Sodium sulfate - Na2SO4 ‎142.036 g/mol
46 Sucrose - C12H22O11 342.2965 g/mol
47 Potassium nitrate - KNO3 101.102 g/mol
48 Ammonium bicarbonate - NH4HCO3 96.086 g/mol
49 Ammonium chloride - NH4Cl 53.489 g/mol
50 Ammonium hydroxide - NH4OH 35.046 g/mol
51 Calcium nitrate - Ca(NO3)2 164.088 g/mol
52 Calcium oxide - CaO 56.0774 g/mol
53 Carbon monoxide - CO 28.01 g/mol
54 Chlorine gas - Cl2 70.9 g/mol
55 Phenol - C6H6O 94.11 g/mol
56 Hydrogen peroxide - H2O2 34.0147 g/mol
57 Hydroxide - OH 17.007 g/mol
58 Magnesium chloride - MgCl2 95.211 g/mol
59 Magnesium hydroxide - Mg(OH)2 58.3197 g/mol
60 Potassium chloride - KCl 74.5513 g/mol
61 Potassium iodide - KI 166.0028 g/mol
62 Sulfur dioxide - SO2 64.066 g/mol
63 Glycerin - C3H8O3 92.09 g/mol
64 Ammonium sulfate - (NH4)2SO4 132.14 g/mol
65 Barium nitrate - Ba(NO3)2 261.337 g/mol
66 Calcium acetate - C4H6O4Ca 158.17 g/mol
67 Sulfurous Acid - H2SO3 82.07 g/mol
68 Iron oxide - Fe2O3 159.69 g/mol
69 Potassium carbonate - K2CO3 138.205 g/mol
70 Silver chloride - AgCl ‎143.318 g/mol
71 Sodium iodide - NaI 149.894 g/mol
72 Sodium oxide - Na2O 61.9789 g/mol
73 Sodium sulfide - Na2S 78.0452 g/mol
74 Sucrose - C12H22O11 342.30 g/mol
75 Zinc nitrate - Zn(NO3)2 189.388 g/mol
76 Aluminium Sulfate - Al2(SO4)3 342.15 g/mol
77 Phenolphthalein - C20H14O4 318.32 g/mol
78 Magnesium nitrate - Mg(NO3)2 148.313 g/mol
79 Silicon dioxide - SiO2 60.083 g/mol
80 Acetone - C3H6O 58.08 g/mol
81 Hydroquinone - C6H6O2 110.11 g/mol
82 Pyridine - C5H5N 79.1 g/mol
83 Ammonium acetate - C2H3O2NH4 77.083 g/mol
84 Xylene - C8H10 106.16 g/mol
85 Barium sulfate - BaSO4 233.38 g/mol
86 Benzene - C6H6 78.11 g/mol
87 Bicarbonate - CHO3 61.016 g/mol
88 Chromate - CrO42- 15.992 g/mol
89 Methyl Ethyl Ketone - C4H8O 72.107 g/mol
90 Cyanide - CN 26.02 g/mol
91 Trichloroacetic acid - C2HCl3O2 163.38 g/mol
92 Magnesium sulfate - MgSO4 120.361 g/mol
93 Methanol - CH3OH 32.04 g/mol
94 Nitrogen dioxide - NO2 46.0055 g/mol
95 Oxygen - O Atomic mass 15.999 g/mol
96 Methylene blue - C16H18ClN3S 319.85 g/mol
97 Sodium sulfite - Na2SO3 126.043 g/mol
98 Sulfur trioxide - SO3 80.057 g/mol
99 Aluminum phosphate - AlPO4 121.951 g/mol
100 Stearic acid - C18H36O2 284.484 g/mol
101 Dinitrogen monoxide - N2O 44.013 g/mol
102 Carbon monoxide - CO 28.01 g/mol
103 Carbonic acid - H2CO3 62.03 g/mol
104 Sodium carbonate - Na2CO3 105.9888 g/mol
105 Titanium dioxide - TiO2 233.38 g/mol
106 Acetonitrile - C2H3N 41.053 g/mol
107 Oxalic acid - H2C2O4 90.03 g/mol
108 Potassium dichromate - K2Cr2O7 294.185 g/mol
109 Salicylic acid - C7H6O3 138.121 g/mol
110 Sodium bromide - NaBr 102.894 g/mol
111 Sodium hypochlorite - NaClO 74.439 g/mol
112 Zinc acetate - Zn(CH3COO)2(H2O)2 183.48 g/mol
113 Zinc chloride - ZnCl2 136.286 g/mol
114 Zinc hydroxide - Zn(OH)2 99.424 g/mol
115 Magnesium carbonate - MgCO3 84.313 g/mol
116 Potassium chlorate - KClO3 122.545 g/mol
117 Hydrazine - N2H4 32.0452 g/mol
118 Ascorbic acid - C6H8O6 176.12 g/mol
119 Benzoic acid - C7H6O2 122.12 g/mol
120 Resorcinol - C6H6O2 110.1 g/mol
121 Chlorine - Cl2 ‎70.9 g/mol
122 Ammonium nitrate - NH4NO3 80.043 g/mol
123 Ammonium phosphate - (NH4)3PO4 132.056 g/mol
124 Carbon tetrachloride - CCl4 153.82 g/mol
125 Nitrous acid - HNO2 47.013 g/mol
126 Maleic acid - C4H4O4 116.072 g/mol
129 Sodium metabisulfite - Na2S2O5 190.107 g/mol
130 Sodium Hypochlorite - NaClO 74.439 g/mol
131 Acetamide - C2H5NO 59.068 g/mol
132 Magnesium carbonate - MgCO3 84.3139 g/mol
133 Sodium silicate - (Na2O)x·SiO2 122.062 g/mol
134 Nitrite - NO2 46.005 g/mol
135 Hydroxide - OH 17.007 g/mol
136 Phosphate - PO43- 94.9714 g/mol
137 Dichloromethane - CH2Cl2 84.93 g/mol
138 Carbon Disulfide - CS2 76.13 g/mol
139 Potassium chromate - CrK2O4 194.189 g/mol
140 Zinc sulfate - ZnSO4 161.436 g/mol
141 Iodine - I Atomic mass 126.90 g/mol
142 Tannic acid - C76H52O46 1701.19 g/mol
143 Aluminum - Al 26.982 g/mol
144 Perchloric acid - HClO4 100.46 g/mol
145 Hypochlorite - ClO 51.449 g/mol
146 Citric acid - C6H8O7 192.124 g/mol
147 Potassium Bromide - KBr 119.002 g/mol
148 Chromic acid - H2CrO4 118.01 g/mol
149 Dihydrogen monoxide - OH2 18.01528 g/mol
150 Methyl acetate - C3H6O2 74.079 g/mol
151 Dimethyl sulfoxide - C2H6OS 78.13 g/mol
152 Hexane - C6H14 86.18 g/mol
153 Phosphoric acid - H3PO4 97.994 g/mol
154 Eugenol - C10H12O2 164.2 g/mol
155 Manganese dioxide - MnO2 86.9368 g/mol
156 Dimethyl sulfoxide - C2H6OS 78.13 g/mol
157 Lactic acid - C3H6O3 90.078 g/mol
158 Sodium potassium tartrate - C4H4O6KNa·4H2O 282.1 g/mol
159 Hexamine - C6H12N4 140.186 g/mol
160 Lithium hydroxide - LiOH 23.95 g/mol
161 Dimethyl sulfoxide - C2H6OS 78.13 g/mol
162 Phosphorus pentachloride - PCl5 208.24 g/mol
163 Potassium oxide - K2O 94.2 g/mol
164 Potassium phosphate - KH2PO4 136.084 g/mol
165 Silver acetate - AgC2H3O2 166.91 g/mol
166 Sodium citrate - Na3C6H5O7 258.06 g/mol
167 Sodium fluoride - NaF 41.98817 g/mol
168 Sodium nitrite - NaNO2 68.9953 g/mol
169 Sulfate ion - SO42− 96.06 g/mol
170 Barium carbonate - BaCO3 197.34 g/mol
171 Calcium iodide - CaI2 293.887 g/mol
172 Hydrogen sulfate - HSO4 97.064 g/mol
173 Lithium oxide - Li2O 29.88 g/mol
174 Dimethylglyoxime - C4H8N2O2 116.12 g/mol
175 Permanganate - KMnO4 158.034 g/mol
176 Silver phosphate - Ag3PO4 418.58 g/mol
177 Sodium carbonate - Na2CO3 105.9888 g/mol
178 Ammonium bromide - NH4Br 97.943 g/mol
179 Calcium phosphate - Ca3(PO4)2 310.18 g/mol
180 Dichromate - K2Cr2O7 294.185 g/mol
181 Aluminum sulfide - Al2S3 150.158 g/mol
182 Ammonium carbonate - (NH4)2CO3 96.086 g/mol
183 Barium chloride - BaCl2 208.23 g/mol
184 Calcium nitrate - Ca(NO3)2 164.088 g/mol
185 Hydroiodic acid - HI 127.91 g/mol
186 Nitrogen monoxide - NO 30.006 g/mol
187 Potassium carbonate - K2CO3 138.205 g/mol
188 Potassium iodide - KI 166.0028 g/mol
189 Potassium nitrate - KNO3 101.102 g/mol
190 Sodium oxide - Na2O 61.9789 g/mol
191 Fructose - C6H12O6 180.16 g/mol
192 Magnesium iodide - MgI2 278.1139 g/mol
193 Magnesium sulfide - MgS 56.38 g/mol
194 Ozone - O3 48 g/mol
195 Potassium cyanide - KCN 65.12 g/mol
196 Silver oxide - Ag2O 231.735 g/mol
197 Sodium chromate - Na2CrO4 161.97 g/mol
198 Sodium peroxide - Na2O2 77.98 g/mol
199 Toluene - C7H8 92.14 g/mol
200 Zinc carbonate - ZnCO3 125.388 g/mol
201 Zinc phosphate - Zn3(PO4)2 386.11 g/mol
202 Zinc sulfide - ZnS 97.474 g/mol
203 Para dichlorobenzene - C6H4Cl2 147.01 g/mol
204 Boric acid - H3BO3 61.83 g/mol
206 Magnesium phosphate - Mg3(PO4)2 262.855 g/mol
207 Oxalate - C2O42− ‎88.018 g/mol
208 Potassium bicarbonate - KHCO3 100.114 g/mol
209 Potassium hypochlorite - KClO 90.55 g/mol
210 Potassium nitrite - KNO2 85.103 g/mol
211 Bromothymol Blue - C27H28Br2O5S 624.384 g/mol
212 Ammonium iodide - NH4I 144.94 g/mol
213 Ammonium nitrate - (NH4)(NO3) ‎80.043 g/mol
214 Ammonium nitrite - NH4NO2 64.06 g/mol
215 Ammonium oxide - (NH4)2O 52.0763 g/mol
216 Argon gas - Ar 39.948 g/mol
217 Barium bromide - BaBr2 297.14 g/mol
218 Barium iodide - BaI2 391.136 g/mol
219 Bromate - BrO3 127.901 g/mol
220 Dinitrogen trioxide - N2O3 76.01 g/mol
221 Ethylene glycol - C2H6O2 62.07 g/mol
222 Hypochlorous acid - HClO 52.46 g/mol
223 Nickel sulfate - NiSO4 154.75 g/mol
224 Helium - He atomic mass ‎4.002602 u
225 Iodide - I 253.809 g/mol
226 Lead ii acetate - Pb(C2H3O2)2 ‎325.29 g/mol
227 Lithium chloride - LiCl 42.394 g/mol
228 Phosphate ion - PO43- 94.9714 g/mol
229 Potassium fluoride - KF 58.0967 g/mol
230 Potassium sulfite - K2SO3 158.26 g/mol
231 Silver carbonate - Ag2CO3 275.7453 g/mol
232 Sodium cyanide - NaCN 49.0072 g/mol
233 Sodium nitride - Na3N 82.976 g/mol
234 Strontium chloride - SrCl2 158.52 g/mol
235 Strontium nitrate - Sr(NO3)2 211.628 g/mol
236 Urea - CH4N2O ‎60.056 g/mol
237 Bleach - NaClO ‎74.439 g/mol
238 Carbonic acid - H2CO3 62.03 g/mol
239 Lithium bromide - LiBr 86.844 g/mol
240 Aluminum fluoride - AlF3 83.9767 g/mol
241 Barium fluoride - BaF2 175.34 g/mol
242 Butanoic acid - C4H8O2 88.11 g/mol
243 Calcium hydride - CaH2 42.094 g/mol
245 Copper ii carbonate - CuCO3 123.55 g/mol
246 Ethanol - CH3CH2OH 46.07 g/mol
247 Fluorine - F 18.998403 u
248 Lithium phosphate - Li3PO4 115.79 g/mol
249 Glycerol - C3H8O3 92.09382 g/mol
250 Hypobromous acid - HBrO 96.911 g/mol
251 Hypoiodous acid - HIO 143.89 g/mol
252 Lead iodide - PbI2 461.01 g/mol
253 Lithium iodide - LiI 133.844 g/mol
254 Magnesium oxide - MgO 40.3044 g/mol
255 Urethane -  C3H7NO2 89.09 g/mol
256 Nickel nitrate - Ni(NO3)2 182.703 g/mol
257 Potassium chloride - KCl 74.5513 g/mol
258 Potassium nitrate - KNO3 101.102 g/mol
259 Sodium dichromate - Na2Cr2O7 261.97 g/mol
260 Sodium nitrate - NaNO3 84.994 g/mol
261 Tartaric acid - C4H6O6 150.087 g/mol
262 Zinc iodide - ZnI2 319.22 g/mol
263 Bromine - Br 54.9380 g/mol
264 Aluminum bromide - AlBr3 266.69 g/mol
265 Sodium Percarbonate - C2H6Na4O12 157.01 g/mol
267 Nickel acetate - C4H8O4Ni 178.797 g/mol
268 Sodium Thiosulfate - Na2S2O3 158.11 g/mol
269 Acetaldehyde - C2H4O 44.05 g/mol
270 Copper sulfate - CuSO4 159.609 g/mol
271 Mannitol - C6H14O6 182.172 g/mol
272 Calcium Chloride - CaCl2 110.98 g/mol
273 Hydrocyanic acid - HCN 27.0253 g/mol
274 Monosodium Glutamate - C5H8NO4Na 169.111 g/mol
275 Polystyrene - (C8H8)n 104.1 g/mol
276 Calcium Carbide - CaC2 64.099 g/mol
277 Tetrachloroethylene - C2Cl4 165.83 g/mol
278 Sodium Chlorate - NaClO3 106.44 g/mol
279 Potassium Iodate - KIO3 214.001 g/mol
280 Sodium Percarbonate - C2H6Na4O12 157.01 g/mol
281 Lead Acetate - Pb(C2H3O2)2 325.29 g/mol
282 Potassium Thiocyanate - KSCN 97.181 g/mol
283 Butane - C4H10 58.12 g/mol
284 Maltose - C12H22O11 342.3 g/mol
285 Polyurethane Foam - C27H36N2O10 548.589 g/mol
286 Formaldehyde - CH2O 30.031 g/mol
287 Formic Acid - HCOOH 46.03 g/mol
288 Sulfur Hexafluoride - SF6 146.06 g/mol
289 Phosphorus Trichloride - PCl3 137.33 g/mol
290 Ethane - C2H6 30.07 g/mol
291 Dinitrogen Pentoxide - N2O5 30.07 g/mol
292 Phosphorous Acid - H3PO3 82 g/mol
293 Potassium Ferrocyanide - K4Fe(CN)6 368.35 g/mol
294 Xenon Difluoride - XeF2 169.29 g/mol
295 Diatomic Bromine - Br2 159.808 g/mol
296 Phenyl - C6H5 77.106 g/mol
297 Phosphorus Triiodide - PI3 411.6872 g/mol
298 Peroxydisulfuric Acid - H2S2O8 194.14 g/mol
299 Monopotassium Phosphate - KH2PO4 136.086 g/mol
300 Dipotassium Phosphate - K2HPO4 174.2 g/mol
301 Aluminium hydroxide - Al(OH)3 78.00 g/mol
302 Ammonium persulfate - (NH4)2S2O8 228.18 g/mol
303 Sodium borate - Na2[B4O5(OH)4]·8H2O 201.22 g/mol
304 Chloroacetic acid - C2H3O2Cl 94.49 g/mol
305 Potassium acetate - CH3CO2K 98.142 g/mol
306 Barium oxide - BaO 153.326 g/mol
307 Copper(I) Oxide - Cu2O 143.09 g/mol
308 Lithium Bromide - LiBr 86.845 g/mol
309 Copper Hydroxide - Cu(OH)2 97.561 g/mol
310 Tin Oxide - SnO2 97.561 g/mol
311 Chlorine Trifluoride - ClF3 92.448 g/mol
312 Ethylene - C2H4 28.054 g/mol
313 Acetylene - C2H2 26.038 g/mol
314 Chromic Oxide - Cr2O3 151.9904 g/mol
315 Sodium bisulfate - NaHSO4 120.06 g/mol
316 Copper (II) chloride - CuCl2 134.45 g/mol
317 Mercuric chloride - HgCl2 271.52 g/mol
318 Tin (II) chloride - SnCl2 189.60 g/mol
319 Propane - C3H8 44.097 g/mol
320 Lead (IV) oxide - PbO2 239.1988 g/mol

Chemistry Vocabulary [A to Z]

1. Absolute Temperature

temperature measured on the absolute scale

2. Absolute Zero

the lowest temperature theoretically attainable

3. Absorption

a process in which one substance permeates another

4. Accuracy

the quality of being near to the true value

5. Acid

any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste

6. Activation Energy

the energy that an atomic system must acquire before a process (such as an emission or reaction) can occur

7. Addition Reaction

a chemical reaction in which one molecule is added to another

8. Alcohol

a volatile compound made by distillation

9. Alkali Metal

any of the monovalent metals of group I of the periodic table (lithium or sodium or potassium or rubidium or cesium or francium)

10. Alkaline

relating to or containing an alkali

11. Alkaline-Earth Metal

any of the bivalent metals of group II of the periodic table

12. Allotrope

a structurally different form of an element

13. Alloy

a mixture containing two or more metallic elements

14. Amorphous

without real or apparent crystalline form

15. Anhydrous

without water; especially without water of crystallization

16. Anion

a particle with a negative electric charge

17. Aqueous Solution

a solution in water

18. Atom

the smallest component of an element

19. Atomic Mass

the property of an atom that causes it to have weight

20. Atomic Number

quantity of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element

21. Atomic Theory

a theory of the structure of the atom

22. Atomic Weight

(chemistry) the mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units

23. Avogadro'S Law

the principle that equal volumes of all gases (given the same temperature and pressure) contain equal numbers of molecules

24. Avogadro'S Number

the number of molecules in a mole of a substance

25. Balance

bring into equilibrium

26. Base

a compound reacting with an acid to form a salt and water

27. Beaker

a flatbottomed jar made of glass or plastic

28. Binary Compound

chemical compound composed of only two elements

29. Boil

bring to the temperature at which a liquid changes to vapor

30. Boiling Point

the temperature at which a liquid boils at sea level

31. Boyle'S Law

the pressure of an ideal gas at constant temperature varies inversely with the volume

32. Brittle

having little elasticity

33. Buffer

(chemistry) an ionic compound that resists changes in its pH

34. Bunsen Burner

a gas burner used in laboratories

35. Buoyancy

the tendency to float in water or other liquid

36. Calorimetry

measurement of quantities of heat

37. Catalyst

substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction

38. Cation

a particle with a positive electric charge

39. Chain Reaction

a series of chemical reactions in which the product of one is a reactant in the next

40. Charge

the quantity of unbalanced electricity in a body

41. Charles'S Law

(physics) the density of an ideal gas at constant pressure varies inversely with the temperature

42. Chemical Bond

an electrical force linking atoms

43. Chemical Change

process determined by substances' composition and structure

44. Chemical Energy

that part of the energy in a substance that can be released by a chemical reaction

45. Chemical Formula

a representation of a substance using symbols for its constituent elements

46. Chemical Property

a property used to characterize materials in reactions that change their identity

47. Chemical Reaction

a process in which substances are changed into others

48. Chemistry

the science of matter

49. Chromatography

a process used for separating mixtures by virtue of differences in absorbency

50. Coefficient

a constant number that serves as a measure of some property

51. Cohesion

the force that holds together molecules in a solid or liquid

52. Colloid

a mixture with properties between those of a solution and fine suspension

53. Combustion

a reaction of a substance with oxygen to give heat and light

54. Composition

the way in which someone or something is put together

55. Compound

a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements

56. Concentration

the strength of a solution

57. Condensation

process of changing from a gas to a liquid or solid state

58. Conductivity

the property of transmitting heat, electricity, or sound

59. Conductor

a substance that readily serves as a medium for transmission

60. Covalent Bond

a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

61. Crucible

a vessel used for high temperature chemical reactions

62. Crystal

a solid having a highly regular atomic structure

63. Crystalline

consisting of or containing or of the nature of crystals

64. Decomposition Reaction

(chemistry) separation of a substance into two or more substances that may differ from each other and from the original substance

65. Density

the amount per unit size

66. Deposition

the natural process of laying something down

67. Desalination

the removal of salt

68. Diatomic

of or relating to a molecule made up of two atoms

69. Dilution

a solution reduced in strength or concentration

70. Dissolve

pass into a solution

71. Distillation

purifying a liquid by boiling it and condensing its vapors

72. Dmitri Mendeleev

Russian chemist who developed a periodic table of the chemical elements and predicted the discovery of several new elements (1834-1907)

73. Double Bond

a covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms

74. Double Replacement Reaction

a chemical reaction between two compounds where the positive ion of one compound is exchanged with the positive ion of another compound

75. Ductile

capable of being shaped or bent or drawn out

76. Electrolysis

(chemistry) a chemical decomposition reaction produced by passing an electric current through a solution containing ions

77. Electron

an elementary particle with negative charge

78. Electronegativity

(chemistry) the tendency of an atom or radical to attract electrons in the formation of an ionic bond

79. Element

a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances

80. Empirical Formula

a chemical formula showing the ratio of elements in a compound rather than the total number of atoms

81. Endothermic

occurring or formed with absorption of heat

82. Endothermic Reaction

a chemical reaction accompanied by the absorption of heat

83. Energy

any source of usable power

84. Entropy

energy in a system no longer available for mechanical work

85. Enzyme

a complex protein produced by cells that acts as a catalyst

86. Equilibrium

a chemical reaction and its reverse proceed at equal rates

87. Evaporation

the process of becoming a suspension of particles in the air

88. Exothermic

occurring or formed with the release of heat

89. Exothermic Reaction

a chemical reaction accompanied by the evolution of heat

90. Family

a collection of things sharing a common attribute

91. Fermentation

breaking down an organic substance, as sugar into alcohol

92. First Law Of Thermodynamics

the fundamental principle of physics that the total energy of an isolated system is constant despite internal changes

93. Fission

splitting a massive nucleus with the release of energy

94. Flammable

easily ignited

95. Free Energy

(physics) a thermodynamic quantity equivalent to the capacity of a physical system to do work; the units of energy are joules or ergs

96. Freezing

the withdrawal of heat to change something from a liquid to a solid

97. Freezing Point

the temperature below which a liquid turns into a solid

98. Fusion

reaction in which nuclei combine to form more massive nuclei

99. Gas

state of matter distinguished from solid and liquid states

100. Gay-Lussac'S Law

(physics) the density of an ideal gas at constant pressure varies inversely with the temperature

101. Group

atoms bound together as a unit forming part of a molecule

102. Halogen

any of five related nonmetallic elements (fluorine or chlorine or bromine or iodine or astatine) that are all monovalent and readily form negative ions

103. Heat

a form of energy transferred by a difference in temperature

104. Heterogeneous

consisting of elements not of the same kind or nature

105. Homogeneous

all of the same or similar kind or nature

106. Hydrate

any compound that contains water of crystallization

107. Hydrocarbon

an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen

108. Hydrogen Bond

a chemical bond consisting of a hydrogen atom between two electronegative atoms (e.g., oxygen or nitrogen) with one side be a covalent bond and the other being an ionic bond

109. Hypertonic

having a higher osmotic pressure than a comparison solution

110. Hypotonic

having a lower osmotic pressure than a comparison solution

111. Ideal Gas

a hypothetical gas with molecules of negligible size that exert no intermolecular forces

112. Immiscible

(chemistry, physics) incapable of mixing

113. Indicator

a substance that changes color to show something's presence

114. Inorganic Compound

any compound that does not contain carbon

115. Ion

a particle that is electrically charged positive or negative

116. Ionic

containing or involving electrically charged particles

117. Ionic Bond

a chemical bond between oppositely charged ions

118. Isomer

a compound that exists in forms having different arrangements of atoms but the same molecular weight

119. Isotonic

having the same or equal osmotic pressure

120. Isotope

atom with same atomic number, different number of neutrons

121. Kelvin

British physicist who invented the Kelvin scale of temperature and pioneered undersea telegraphy (1824-1907)

122. Kinetic Theory

(physics) a theory that gases consist of small particles in random motion

123. Lattice

an arrangement of points in a regular periodic pattern

124. Law Of Conservation Of Matter

a fundamental principle of classical physics that matter cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system

125. Law Of Definite Proportions

(chemistry) law stating that every pure substance always contains the same elements combined in the same proportions by weight

126. Le Chatelier'S Principle

the principle that if any change is imposed on a system that is in equilibrium then the system tends to adjust to a new equilibrium counteracting the change

127. Liquid

fluid matter having no fixed shape but a fixed volume

128. Litmus Test

material that changes color in acidic or alkaline solutions

129. Luster

the property of something that shines with reflected light

130. Malleable

capable of being shaped or bent

131. Mass

the property of a body that causes it to have weight

132. Mass Number

the sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atomic nucleus

133. Matter

that which has mass and occupies space

134. Melting Point

the temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid

135. Meniscus

the curved upper surface of a liquid in a vertical tube

136. Metal

a chemical element or alloy that is usually a shiny solid

137. Metallic Bond

a chemical bond in which electrons are shared over many nuclei and electronic conduction occurs

138. Metalloid

of or being a nonmetallic element that has some of the properties of metal

139. Miscible

capable of being mixed, in chemistry

140. Mixture

a substance consisting of substances blended together

141. Molarity

concentration measured by molecular weight of a substance

142. Mole

the molecular mass of a substance expressed in grams

143. Molecule

the simplest structural unit of an element or compound

144. Monatomic

of or relating to an element consisting of a single atom

145. Neutral

having only a limited ability to react chemically

146. Neutralization Reaction

a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base interact with the formation of a salt; with strong acids and bases the essential reaction is the combination of hydrogen ions with hydroxyl ions to form water

147. Neutron

a subatomic particle with zero charge

148. Noble Gas

any of the chemically inert gaseous elements of the helium group in the periodic table

149. Nonpolar

not ionic

150. Nucleus

the positively charged dense center of an atom

151. Orbit

the path of an electron around the nucleus of an atom

152. Orbital

relating to the path of one body around another

153. Organic Compound

any compound of carbon and another element or a radical

154. Osmosis

diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane

155. Oxidation

the process by which a substance combines with oxygen

156. Oxidation Number

the degree of oxidation of an atom or ion or molecule

157. Oxidation-Reduction

a reversible chemical reaction in which one reaction is an oxidation and the reverse is a reduction

158. Oxidize

enter into a combination with oxygen

159. Periodic Law

(chemistry) the principle that chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers

160. Periodic Table

arrangement of chemical elements according to atomic number

161. Ph

a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution

162. Phase

a distinct state of matter in a system

163. Phase Change

a change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a change in chemical composition

164. Ph Scale

a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution

165. Physical Change

a change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a change in chemical composition

166. Physical Property

any property used to characterize matter and energy and their interactions

167. Plasma

a fourth state of matter distinct from solid, liquid or gas

168. Polar

having a pair of equal and opposite charges

169. Polyatomic

of or relating to a molecule made up of more than two atoms

170. Polymer

a naturally occurring or synthetic compound

171. Polymerization

a chemical process that combines several monomers to form a polymer or polymeric compound

172. Precipitate

a substance separated from a solution or suspension

173. Precision

the quality of being reproducible in amount or performance

174. Product

a chemical substance formed as a result of a reaction

175. Property

a basic or essential attribute shared by members of a class

176. Proton

a stable particle with positive charge

177. Radiation

energy transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles

178. Radioisotope

a radioactive isotope of an element

179. Reactant

a chemical substance present at the start of a process

180. Reaction

a process in which a substance is changed into another

181. Reagent

a substance for use in chemical reactions

182. Redox

a reversible chemical reaction in which one reaction is an oxidation and the reverse is a reduction

183. Rusting

the formation of reddish-brown ferric oxides on iron by low-temperature oxidation in the presence of water

184. Salinity

the relative proportion of salt in a solution

185. Saponification

a chemical reaction in which an ester is heated with an alkali (especially the alkaline hydrolysis of a fat or oil to make soap)

186. Solid

matter with definite shape at room temperature and pressure

187. Solubility

the quality of being easily dissolved in liquid

188. Solute

the dissolved matter in a solution

189. Solution

a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances

190. Solvent

a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances

191. Specific Heat

the heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree centigrade

192. State Of Matter

(chemistry) the three traditional states of matter are solids (fixed shape and volume) and liquids (fixed volume and shaped by the container) and gases (filling the container)

193. Stoichiometry

(chemistry) the relation between the quantities of substances that take part in a reaction or form a compound (typically a ratio of whole integers)

194. Stp

standard temperature and pressure

195. Subatomic Particle

a body having finite mass and internal structure but negligible dimensions

196. Sublimation

a change directly from the solid to the gaseous state

197. Subscript

character printed slightly below and to the side of another

198. Substance

a particular kind of matter with uniform properties

199. Surface Tension

phenomenon at a liquid's surface from intermolecular forces

200. Suspension

a mixture in which fine particles are supported by buoyancy

201. Temperature

the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment

202. Test Tube

glass tube closed at one end

203. Thermochemistry

the branch of chemistry that studies the relation between chemical action and the amount of heat absorbed or generated

204. Thermodynamics

physics concerned with heat and other forms of energy

205. Titration

a measured amount of a solution of unknown concentration is added to a known volume of a second solution until the reaction between them is just complete; the concentration of the unknown solution (the titer) can then be calculated

206. Valence

the combining power of an atom or radical

207. Valence Electron

an electron in the outer shell of an atom which can combine with other atoms to form molecules

208. Vaporization

the process of becoming a suspension of particles in the air

209. Viscosity

resistance of a liquid to flowing

210. Volume

the amount of 3-dimensional space occupied by an object

211. Weight

the vertical force exerted by a mass as a result of gravity

212. Yield

an amount of a product

Boyle’s Law
The volume of gas depends on its temperature and pressure. According to Boyle’s law, the volume (V) of a definite quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure (P), at constant temperature (T).

V œ 1/P (Temperature constant)
V = K/P K = constant
PV = K

Let we consider the initial pressure of gas = P1
Initial volume of gas = V1
Final pressure of gas = P2
Final volume of gas = V2

P1V1 = P2V2

Charle’s Law
According to Charle’s Law, the volume (V) of a definite quantity of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature (T), at constant pressure (P).

V œ T (Pressure constant)
V = KT K = Constant
V/T = K
Similarly
V1/T1 = V2/T2
V1/V2 = T1/T2

Here we have temperature in a Kelvin temperature or absolute temperature. The temperature at which the volume of hypothetical gas will be zero is called as Kelvin temperature or absolute temperature. Kelvin has discovered this and the temperature is -273°C. The relation between Kelvin temperature (T) and Celsius temperature (t) is shown below.

T = t + 273

Gay Lussac’s Law
According to Gay Lussac’s law, the pressure of a gas of definite quantity at constant volume is directly proportional to absolute temperature.

P œ T
P = KT
P/T =K

P1/T1 = P2/T2
P1/P2 = T1/T2

A definite quantity of gas having volume (V1) at temperature (T1) and pressure (P1) changes to volume (V2), and the reaction is represented as below

P1V1T1 → P2VxT2 → P2V2T2

According to Boyle’s law
P1V1 = P2Vx
Vx = P1V1/ P2 ………………………………….(1)

According to Charle’s law
VxT1 = V2T2
Vx = V2T2/T1 ……………………………………(2)

If we combine both the law, then as per equation (1) and (2)
P1 V1/ P2 = V2T2/T1
P1 V1/ T1 = P2V2/T2

PV/T = K
PV = KT
PV = nRT

Where, K = changes if quantity of gas changes = nR
n = quantity of gas in mole
R = gas constant

Dalton’s Law
Dalton’s law is based on partial pressure of gas. Partial pressure is a sum of individual pressure of each gas in the gaseous mixture.

Consider one example:

A vessel contains a mixture of gas A and B having pressure of PA and PB respectively. According to Dalton’s law, the partial pressure of gaseous mixture is the sum of individual pressure of each gas.
P = PA + PB

Graham’s Law
According to Graham’s law, the rate of diffusion of various gases is inversely proportional to the square root of their densities, at constant temperature and pressure.

r œ 1/ (d)1/2

Where, r = rate of diffusion
d = density of gas

Chemistry Definition

Chemistry is the branch of science that deals with the properties, composition, and structure of elements and compounds, how they can change, and the energy that is released or absorbed when they change.

What is Organic Chemistry?

Organic chemistry is the study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation of carbon-containing compounds, which include not only hydrocarbons but also compounds with any number of other elements, including hydrogen (most compounds contain at least one carbon–hydrogen bond), nitrogen, oxygen, halogens, phosphorus, silicon, and sulfur. This branch of chemistry was originally limited to compounds produced by living organisms but has been broadened to include human-made substances such as plastics. The range of application of organic compounds is enormous and also includes, but is not limited to, pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, food, explosives, paints, and cosmetics.

Where Is Organic Chemistry Used?

Organic chemistry is a highly creative science in which chemists create new molecules and explore the properties of existing compounds. It is the most popular field of study for ACS chemists and Ph.D. chemists.

Organic compounds are all around us. They are central to the economic growth of the United States in the rubber, plastics, fuel, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, detergent, coatings, dyestuff, and agrichemical industries, to name a few. The very foundations of biochemistry, biotechnology, and medicine are built on organic compounds and their role in life processes. Many modern, high-tech materials are at least partially composed of organic compounds .

Organic chemists spend much of their time creating new compounds and developing better ways of synthesizing previously known compounds.

What Is Inorganic Chemistry?

Inorganic chemistry is concerned with the properties and behavior of inorganic compounds, which include metals, minerals, and organometallic compounds. While organic chemistry is defined as the study of carbon-containing compounds and inorganic chemistry is the study of the remaining subset of compounds other than organic compounds, there is overlap between the two fields (such as organometallic compounds, which usually contain a metal or metalloid bonded directly to carbon).

Where Is Inorganic Chemistry Used?

Inorganic compounds are used as catalysts, pigments, coatings, surfactants, medicines, fuels, and more. They often have high melting points and specific high or low electrical conductivity properties, which make them useful for specific purposes. For example:

  • Ammonia is a nitrogen source in fertilizer, and it is one of the major inorganic chemicals used in the production of nylons, fibers, plastics, polyurethanes (used in tough chemical-resistant coatings, adhesives, and foams), hydrazine (used in jet and rocket fuels), and explosives.
  • Chlorine is used in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (used for pipes, clothing, furniture etc.), agrochemicals (e.g., fertilizer, insecticide, or soil treatment), and pharmaceuticals, as well as chemicals for water treatment and sterilization.
  • Titanium dioxide is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, which is used as a white powder pigment in paints, coatings, plastics, paper, inks, fibers, food, and cosmetics. Titanium dioxide also has good ultraviolet light resistance properties, and there is a growing demand for its use in photocatalysts.

Inorganic chemistry is a highly practical science—traditionally, a nation’s economy was evaluated by their production of sulfuric acid because it is one of the more important elements used as an industrial raw material.

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